Abstracts Accepted for Session 4: Emerging Diseases Control and Environmental Impact

Aquatic Disease Control of Infectious Salmon Anaemia in Atlantic Canada 2013- 2015

Sonya Natasha Piercey, Edward Malek

Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Grand Falls-Windsor, Newfoundland and Labrador

Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a finfish disease caused by a virus that belongs to a family of viruses called Orthomyxoviridae. The species of finfish can be infected with ISA include Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon), Salmo trutta (brown trout). Species that may be susceptible include Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic char), Clupea harengus (Atlantic herring). ISA is a reportable disease in Canada. There is no evidence that ISA can be transmitted to humans, as a study led by the European Union in 2000 concluded that there is no reason to regard ISA as a zoonosis. As well, the World Organisation for Animal Health does not consider ISA to be zoonotic, and recognizes that fish fillets or steaks – fresh or frozen – packaged for the retail trade can be traded safely from countries regardless of their ISA status. Since ISA poses no risk to people, the CFIA allows fish from an affected facility to be processed under a CFIA-issued licence. ISA was first detected in the Atlantic area in 1996 and it has been reported in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland. ISA has not been found in the Pacific Ocean watershed. Outbreaks are most common in susceptible farmed finfish reared in seawater. ISA has not been seen at the embryo stage, but can affect fish at any life stage after hatching. It is a slow moving disease so the death rate may initially be low and increase over time (weeks to months) and depending on the strain of virus, outbreaks of ISA can cause mortality rates of 30 to and up to 90 per cent in affected populations. When ISA is suspected, the CFIA investigates to collect all relevant information and samples are collected and sent for laboratory testing using validated protocols at one of Canada’s three National Aquatic Animal Health Laboratories. There are no treatment options currently available for ISA; however there is a vaccine available in Canada for prevention. ISA may be spread between finfish by contact with infected finfish; or water contaminated with the virus. In addition people can spread ISA by moving infected live/dead finfish; contaminated equipment/water. If ISA is confirmed, the CFIA controls its spread by carrying out disease response activities. These activities vary depending on the situation and could include: •controlling the movements of infected animals; •overseeing the humane destruction of infected animals; •verification of cleaning and disinfection activities; and •requiring the facility to have a fallow period prior to restocking. This presentation will review the process of destruction and disposal options, challenges, and solutions utilized by the CFIA in Newfoundland and Labrador over the period of June 2013 to December 2015. The remote locations and weather extremes brought unique challenges to the Agency – Staff had to contend with the unpredictability of the North Atlantic Ocean and limited resources while attempting to control an aquatic disease. Once on land, limited disposal options, and a large geographic area were issues that the Agency had to address and overcome. The final phase of the National Aquatic Animal Health Program (NAAHP) was implemented in December 2015. If there is no risk to food safety or human health, the CFIA will identify areas of Canada where reportable aquatic animal diseases are known to exist, and is therefore applying specific controls to protect unaffected areas of the country. Where an aquatic disease has become established, the CFIA will no longer routinely order the destruction of infected fish in areas declared to be infected, except where a significant impact on wild fisheries is anticipated.

Presentation: session 4.1

Filth Fly Activity Associated with Composted and Non-Composted Beef Cadavers and Laboratory Studies on Volatile Organic Compounds

TR Dubie, Justin Talley, Josh Payne

Oklahoma State University and Jones-Hamilton Co

The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak has become the largest animal health emergency in U.S. history. As of April, 2018, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) reports 235 detections (214 commercial facilities and 21 backyard flocks) affecting approximately 50 million birds in 23 states. To date, over $950 million federal dollars have been spent on disease control efforts and indemnities. The infected birds have either died from the disease or been euthanized to control disease spread. Proper carcass management is vital for managing nutrients and controlling disease. Improper disposal may cause odor nuisance, spread disease, and the resulting leachate could negatively impact water sources. Mortality management options that were used during the recent HPAI outbreak include composting, burial, incineration, and landfilling. The most commonly implemented option was mass mortality composting. The purpose of mortality composting during the HPAI outbreak was to use biological heat treatment methods to degrade the carcass, inactivate the avian influenza virus, control odors and reduce fly exposure in a safe, biosecure, and environmentally sustainable manner. As a result of the outbreak, a national composting technical team was formed by the USDA, and a mortality composting protocol for avian influenza infected flocks was published. This presentation will outline mortality management options during an animal disease outbreak and highlight the composting methodology implemented on poultry operations during the HPAI outbreak, as well as the successes, challenges and lessons learned.

Presentation: Session 4.2

Emergency Response: Composting in a Brucellosis Suis Outbreak

Jean Bonhotal, Dr. Todd Johnson

Ithaca, New York

A Brucellosis suis outbreak was identified in early August 2016 on several small non-industrial farm in northeastern New York State.  The disease was identified because a farmer became ill from the bacterium Brucellosis suis. The team of state veterinarians, an APHIS veterinarian and disposal people visited the largest affected farm to assess whether the pigs could be disposed of on the farm. There were a few places that could be used for composting however the farm was very wet and there were no staging areas to dispatch the pigs. The farms were also under a lot of stress with the outbreak and eventual loss of their pigs.  In the end it was determined that the pigs should be hauled away from the farm, dispatched and composted.

Presentation: Session 4.3

Livestock Carcass Disposal Exposure Assessments for Natural Disasters, Chemical, Biological and Radiological Emergencies

Sandip Chattopadhyay1, Paul Lemieux1, Sarah Taft1, Joshua Cleland2, Lori Miller3

1U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development 2ICF International 3United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Cincinnati, Ohio

As the hurricane response efforts transition to recovery efforts, our nation faces the challenges of the management of animal carcasses from catastrophic mortality events. Management of potentially infectious livestock carcasses following large-scale mortalities is essential to protect humans, livestock, and wildlife from hazards; to maintain water, air, and soil resources; to protect ecological resources; and to enhance food safety and agricultural security. Previous environmental assessments of mass livestock mortality events relied primarily on qualitative evaluation of exposure or observations based on incident-specific circumstances, which limits their usefulness for general decision-making. To address the need for a comparative analysis, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are jointly conducting an exposure assessment and pathways analysis for potential releases of pathogens, chemicals, radiological contaminants using seven key carcass treatment and disposal options during natural disaster and other accidental/intentional releases. Exposure estimates were performed to rank the various livestock carcass management options relative to one another for a hypothetical site and mortality scenario from a natural disaster, foreign animal disease outbreak, and chemical/radiological contamination emergencies. This presentation will discuss key observations of mortality scenarios from detailed EPA reports. Contaminants released from decomposing carcasses or from carcass management and post-management processes were identified and evaluated for each management option based on the likely occurrence, survival, persistence, and mobility. A tiered approach was used to rank possible releases and exposures to hazardous contaminants for a hypothetical site under a set of standardized environmental conditions, scale of mortality, and carcass management practices. Sensitivity analysis was performed so that the most important exposure considerations could be evaluated by the end-user for other site-specific conditions. This assessment provides an understanding of the relative contribution of specific exposure pathways, identification of hazardous agents, and steps in carcass management processes to support selection of environmentally protective management practices by helping decision makers setting priorities for mitigation in the event of emergency mass livestock mortalities.

Presentation: Session 4.4